What is the effect of exercise on heart rate? Are they related?




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TitleWhat is the effect of exercise on heart rate? Are they related?
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Name: Anushka Rahman Grade: 9-B

What is the effect of exercise on heart rate? Are they related?


~~Aim~~



To find out if increasing intensities of exercises make the heart rate increase proportionally.

~~Introduction~~



I am going to investigate whether or not there is relative proportion between the increase of heart rate and increase of intensity levels during exercise. In order to find out, I will be doing a series of experiments that will be subjected on two boys and two girls. They will be separated according to gender.

~~Hypothesis~~



My predictions related to this experiment are:


1) That the heart rate will increase significantly if not proportionally.

2) Different exercises will lead to different results of some nature.


~~Scientific Reasons~~



Explanations for my predictions are:


  1. When we exercise, heavily or lightly, we tire out because our blood is pumping hard, and our pulse rate is increasing. There is a fair chance that the increase in intensity of exercise and heart rate are proportional, but to be on the safe side of predictions, I have stated thus.


2) As different exercises have different intensity levels and attack different parts of the body, we may react differently to each of them. This, I think is an important fact when experimenting, as each exercise has to now be carefully analysed and thought of before being used during the experiment.

~~Variables~~



There are three types of variables that we are experimenting with. They are:


  1. Independent variable- this is the idea, which we are investigating.

  2. Dependent variable- the things that we will/can measure.

  3. Controlled variable- the things we can control.

A. The independent variables that are in this experiment are:


    1. The heart rate

    2. The level of intensity of the exercises

    3. The proportion between them.


B. The dependent variables that are in this experiment are:
^

  1. The pulse rate before and after exercises.





  1. The controlled variables that are in this experiment are:




  1. Equal number of people doing exercise.

  2. The age group is the same.

  3. All after been supervised. They have eaten the same kind of food all day.

  4. All are barefoot

  5. The method of procedure and exercise will be the same for each subject.

  6. They will all be given time to rest between each exercise.

  7. The time will be from 4 pm to 6 pm, when all subjects are relaxed, but ready to exercise.

  8. The exercises will take place indoors.

  9. The same exercises will be repeated for each subject.


~~Subjects~~


    1. Subject-#1 is a girl aged 14 years, fit, wearing clothes that she is comfortable with. Has eaten properly, and according to plan.

    2. Subject-#2 is a girl aged 15 years, fit, wearing clothes that she is comfortable with. Has eaten properly, and according to plan.


~~Apparatus & Material~~


  • A stopwatch.

  • A pen or pencil.

  • Paper.

  • Room to exercise.

  • Subjects to work with.



~~Procedure Of Exercise~~


Each subject will do these sets of exercises individually, so that no mistakes are made during examination. This will also avoid distraction.


Step #1-


Take resting pulse rate of subject.

Exercise Type: Step-ups.

Duration of exercise: 2 minutes.

Check current pulse rate.

Rest until pulse rate returns to its original resting pulse rate.


To increase intensity levels the duration of exercise will be increased by two minutes each time the exercise is repeated by subject. The exercise will be repeated until the duration of exercise reaches 10 minutes.


Step #2-


Take resting pulse rate of subject.

Exercise Type: walking.

Duration of exercise: 2 minutes.

Check current pulse rate.

Rest until pulse rate returns to its original resting pulse rate.


To increase intensity levels the duration of exercise will be increased by two minutes each time the exercise is repeated by subject. The exercise will be repeated until the duration of exercise reaches 10 minutes.


These exercises have to be completed by each subject and no changes will be made for either of them.


~~Results Table~~





Subject #

^ Resting pulse rate
Type of exercise

Duration of exercise

Pulse rate before exercise

Pulse rate after exercise

1

80

Step-ups


1

80

108

1

80

Step-ups


2

80

132

1

80

Step-ups


3

80

144

1

80

Step-ups


4

80

152

1

80

Step-ups


5

80

160

1

80

Walking

1

80

108

1

80

Walking

2

80

108

1

80

Walking

3

80

112

1

80

Walking

4

80

124

1

80

Walking

5

80

128

2

96

Step-ups


1

96

160

2

96

Step-ups


2

96

200

2

96

Step-ups


3

96

240

2

96

Step-ups


4

96

260

2

96

Step-ups


5

96

280

2

96

Walking

1

96

100

2

96

Walking

2

96

108

2

96

Walking


3

96

112

2

96

Walking

4

96

125

2

96

Walking

5

96

126



~~Data Processing~~








~~Data Analysis~~


The first graph, illustrates the comparison between the pulse rate of subject #1 and subject #2, while they were doing step-ups. Subject #1 has a lower pulse rate range then subject #2, and therefore, was not as tired out as subject #2. However, the steady increase in pulse rate for both subjects is unmistakeable. Mathematically speaking, subject #1’s pulse rate increased to 28 beats more then her resting pulse rate, after the one minute exercise, then increased to 52 beats more in the two minutes exercise, which is almost two times the rate of the first minute. After 5 minutes of the exercise was over, the pulse of subject #1 was double that of her resting pulse rate. For subject #2, the jumping pace of her pulse rate was almost incredible. Her pulse rate increased by 64 beats then her resting in the first minute, and it increased by 104 in the two minutes exercise, then 144 beats in the three minutes exercise. The pulse rate sort of slowed down to increasing to 164 in the four minutes exercise. So, for this particular exercise, we can say that increasing intensity levels of exercise causes the pulse rate to increase proportionally.


The second graph shows that even though the exercise is slow and less exhausting then the first, the pulse rate steadily increases, and both subjects are nearly neck-to-neck in pulse rates. Again, we can say that increasing intensity levels of exercise causes the pulse rate to increase proportionally, and at the same time, also proves that people react differently to different exercises.


~~Conclusion~~


We can see quite clearly in both graphs that the pulse rate increases proportionally with the duration of each/both exercise(s). It is always important to consider the intensity of the exercise a person/subject is doing. If the exercise requires a lot of work, then the pulse rate will increase rapidly and accordingly. If the exercise doesn’t take much effort, then the pulse rate will increase, but very slowly and in small bouts. Both of these conclusions prove my predictions to be true and concrete.


~~Explanation~~


The pulse rate increases when we do something that requires energy. We need energy whenever we stress ourselves, or do something physically. When we exercise, we require energy because we need to use muscles in a quick and strenuous way. Our pulse rate increases accordingly. That is what I tried to prove through this investigation.


~~Evaluation Of My Procedure~~


What was good about the investigation and the method I used?


For this investigation, I have used a very simple and easy method, as most of the statistical work was done for me. The graphs were all accurate, and that helped me analyse the data represented. Ms Excel helped me in yet another way as it gave me so many types of charts and graphs to choose from. The results table clearly represented all the data, which was important, as I had to look at the data that I collected, and analyse it later properly. The two subjects were really cooperative, so it was easy to get the job done. Their physical efficiencies were more or less the same, though stress was handled differently by each of them. The choice of exercise was good, as I got to compare between not only what the pulse rate increases in increasing intensity levels, but also the intensity levels of the exercises itself. I was able to justify my predictions, and they were proved through the investigation. To do this investigation, I used a number of tools to help me out. I used Ms Word (for the writing), Ms. Excel (for the graphs) and a calculator at most times. I have tried more often as not, to make all my points and views clear, as that is very important.


What was bad about the investigation and the method I used?


During this investigation, I used only one method, which can add to the unreliability of the results. I could have gotten more subjects or added more exercises to increase comparison levels, and that could have made my results even more reliable. The pulse rates that were taken may have been one more or one less, as finding the pulse rate by hand can be unreliable, as opposed to software specially designed to figure out the pulse rate.


What can I improve in my investigation?


To improve this report, I will have to use more methods to make my findings more concrete. I could extend my report by adding more subjects and exercises. I could maybe also use some software that could check our pulse rate as an accurate measure. This would require some background researching, but that could be used as justification as well.

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