Chapter 16: Recombinant dna and Biotechnology test file questions




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Chapter 16: Recombinant DNA and Biotechnology


TEST FILE QUESTIONS


Multiple Choice

1. Which of the following enzymes are used by bacteria to defend themselves against bacteriophage?

a. DNA polymerase

b. Reverse transcriptase

c. Phosphofructokinase

d. Restriction endonuclease

e. None of the above

Textbook Reference: 16.1 How Are Large DNA Molecules Analyzed? p. 353


2. Most restriction sites are _______ base pairs long.

a. 1 or 2

b. 4–6

c. about 10

d. about 20

e. over 50

Textbook Reference: 16.1 How Are Large DNA Molecules Analyzed? p. 353


3. Which of the following is true about restriction enzymes?

a. They cut at regular intervals, every 4,000 base pairs.

b. They prefer to cut at DNA that has been methylated.

c. EcoRI’s restriction site is a palindrome.

d. All of the above

e. None of the above

Textbook Reference: 16.1 How Are Large DNA Molecules Analyzed? p. 354


4. Which of the following enzymes would a bacterium most likely use to prevent its DNA from being chopped up by its own restriction enzymes?

a. DNA polymerase

b. Ligase

c. Lactase

d. Reverse transcriptase

e. Methylase

Textbook Reference: 16.1 How Are Large DNA Molecules Analyzed? p. 354


5. DNA is _______ charged due to the presence of a _______ group.

a. negatively; methyl

b. negatively; phosphate

c. negatively; carbon

d. positively; methyl

e. positively; phosphate

Textbook Reference: 16.1 How Are Large DNA Molecules Analyzed? p. 354


6. DNA, because it has a _______ charge, moves to the _______ end of the field in gel electrophoresis; _______ DNA molecules migrate the most quickly.

a. positive; positive; smaller

b. positive; positive; larger

c. positive; negative; smaller

d. negative; positive; larger

e. negative; positive; smaller

Textbook Reference: 16.1 How Are Large DNA Molecules Analyzed? p. 354


7. Which of the following would most likely involve a nylon filter?

a. Restriction digest

b. Genetic knockout

c. Southern blot

d. Creation of artificial chromosomes

e. Construction of a gene library

Textbook Reference: 16.1 How Are Large DNA Molecules Analyzed? p. 354


8. Southern blotting is used

a. to prevent restriction enzymes from inappropriately digesting DNA.

b. to reveal specific DNA sequences.

c. to make genetic knockouts.

d. in pharming.

e. to transfect cells.

Textbook Reference: 16.1 How Are Large DNA Molecules Analyzed? p. 354


9. Which of the following would most likely involve radioactively labeled, single-stranded DNA?

a. Restriction digestion

b. Pharming

c. Constructing a gene library

d. Southern blotting

e. None of the above

Textbook Reference: 16.1 How Are Large DNA Molecules Analyzed? p. 354


10. Restriction enzymes cleave DNA at specific sequences by hydrolyzing

a. the 3’ hydroxyl of one nucleotide and the 5’ phosphate of the next one.

b. at the 1’ carbons to cleave the nitrogenous bases.

c. at the 2’ carbons to cleave hydroxyl groups.

d. two phosphodiester linkages on the same strand.

e. four phosphodiester linkages, two on each strand.

Textbook Reference: 16.1 How Are Large DNA Molecules Analyzed? p. 354


11. Which of the following is a palindromic recognition sequence?

a. 5’. . . CAATAG . . . 3’

b. 5’. . . CAATTG . . . 3’

c. 5’. . . CATTTG . . . 3’

d. All of the above

e. None of the above

Textbook Reference: 16.1 How Are Large DNA Molecules Analyzed? p. 354


12. Electrophoresis separates DNA fragments of different sizes, but this technique does not indicate which of the fragments contains the DNA piece of interest. This problem is solved by

a. measuring the sizes of the bands on the gel.

b. removing the bands from the gel and hybridizing them with a known strand of DNA complementary to the gene of interest.

c. knowing the isoelectric points of the piece in question.

d. identifying the molecular weights of the fragments in question.

e. None of the above

Textbook Reference: 16.1 How Are Large DNA Molecules Analyzed? pp. 354–355


13. Which two methods are most often used in DNA fingerprinting?

a. Homologous and antisense RNA recombination

b. Pharming and phishing

c. Restriction digestion and gel electrophoresis

d. Gel electrophoresis and creation of expression vectors

e. Homologous recombination and the construction of gene libraries

Textbook Reference: 16.1 How Are Large DNA Molecules Analyzed? pp. 355–356


14. Which of the following types of variations would be most detectable by gel electrophoresis if the differences were between two recognition sites for a restriction enzyme?

a. SNPs

b. PCRs

c. HMRs

d. STRs

e. HMOs

Textbook Reference: 16.1 How Are Large DNA Molecules Analyzed? p. 356


15. Which of the following types of variation involves changes at a single nucleotide base?

a. SNPs

b. PCRs

c. HMRs

d. STRs

e. HMOs

Textbook Reference: 16.1 How Are Large DNA Molecules Analyzed? p. 356


16. DNA fingerprinting methods require at least one _______ of DNA.

a. picogram

b. nanogram

c. microgram

d. milligram

e. gram

Textbook Reference: 16.1 How Are Large DNA Molecules Analyzed? p. 356


17. Which of the following techniques can, in principle, amplify DNA from a single cell to produce sufficient quantities of DNA for DNA fingerprinting?

a. SNP

b. Restriction digest

c. STR

d. PCR

e. Reverse transcription

Textbook Reference: 16.1 How Are Large DNA Molecules Analyzed? p. 356


18. Which of the following statements about DNA fingerprinting is true?

a. To date, DNA fingerprinting has been used forensically to prove guilt more often than it has been used to prove innocence.

b. DNA fingerprinting cannot be used on skeletons over 50 years old.

c. DNA fingerprinting examines just a small fraction of the genome.

d. All of the above

e. None of the above

Textbook Reference: 16.1 How Are Large DNA Molecules Analyzed? p. 356


19. A single hair is found at the scene of a crime. Which technology would you use first to determine if the hair could have come from a certain suspect?

a. PCR

b. DNA sequencing

c. Fragment cloning

d. Probing

e. Antisense RNA

Textbook Reference: 16.1 How Are Large DNA Molecules Analyzed? p. 356


20. The DNA barcode project has the potential to

a. track species diversity in important ecological areas.

b. advance research in evolutionary biology.

c. detect undesirable microbes in food.

d. All of the above

e. None of the above

Textbook Reference: 16.1 How Are Large DNA Molecules Analyzed? p. 356


21. Paul Herbert proposed using cytochrome oxidase in the DNA barcode project because it

a. evolves slowly.

b. mutates readily.

c. is found in most organisms.

d. Both a and c

e. Both b and c

Textbook Reference: 16.1 How Are Large DNA Molecules Analyzed? p. 357


22. The two enzymes that are most important in the construction of recombinant DNA are _______ and _______.

a. restriction enzymes; reverse transcriptase

b. restriction enzymes; ligase

c. reverse transcriptase; DNA polymerase

d. TPA; reverse transcriptase

e. cytochrome oxidase; DNA polymerase

Textbook Reference: 16.2 What Is Recombinant DNA? p. 358


23. Which of the following statements about recombinant DNA is true?

a. DNA ligase can connect sticky-end fragments only.

b. Hydrogen bonds between base pairs are very strong.

c. Blunt ends are exposed bases that can hybridize with complementary sequence fragments.

d. Annealing takes place when temperatures are raised.

e. None of the above

Textbook Reference: 16.2 What Is Recombinant DNA? p. 358


24. The joining of different DNAs through the use of cutting and splicing DNA is called

a. PCR.

b. recombinant DNA.

c. complementary DNA.

d. DNA fingerprinting.

e. None of the above

Textbook Reference: 16.2 What Is Recombinant DNA? p. 358


25. EcoRI makes staggered cuts when it cleaves DNA, creating single-stranded tails called “sticky ends.” These ends can form a complementary base pair. In order for this to happen, which of the following conditions is necessary?

a. The presence of specific helicases

b. High enough temperatures

c. Methyl groups at each end

d. Low enough temperatures

e. None of the above

Textbook Reference: 16.2 What Is Recombinant DNA? p. 358


26. The production of many copies of a particular gene is called

a. transfection.

b. restriction.

c. cloning.

d. annealing.

e. inducing.

Textbook Reference: 16.3 How Are New Genes Inserted into Cells? p. 359


27. Reporter genes are used in the construction of transgenics because they

a. connect blunt-end fragments.

b. carry the DNA into host cells.

c. have an easily observed phenotype.

d. can replicate independently inside the host cell.

e. contain recognition sites for restriction enzymes.

Textbook Reference: 16.3 How Are New Genes Inserted into Cells? p. 359


28. Transgenic cells are created via the _______ of recombinant DNA into cells.

a. recombination

b. transfection

c. ligation

d. restriction

e. complementation

Textbook Reference: 16.3 How Are New Genes Inserted into Cells? p. 359


29. Yeasts are useful eukaryotic hosts for recombinant DNA studies because of their

a. rapid rate of cell division.

b. small genome size.

c. ease of growth in the laboratory.

d. All of the above

e. None of the above

Textbook Reference: 16.3 How Are New Genes Inserted into Cells? p. 359


30. Bacteria are not particularly useful hosts for studies of the expression of eukaryotic genes because they

a. are totipotent.

b. lack the splicing machinery needed to remove introns from eukaryotic mRNA.

c. have a small genome size.

d. contain plasmids.

e. lack genetic markers.

Textbook Reference: 16.3 How Are New Genes Inserted into Cells? p. 359


31. The enzyme that can join pieces of DNA together is

a. RNA polymerase.

b. DNA polymerase.

c. DNA ligase.

d. -galactosidase.

e. None of the above

Textbook Reference: 16.3 How Are New Genes Inserted into Cells? p. 359


32. Plant cells are particularly useful as hosts for recombinant DNA because they

a. have plasmids.

b. lack introns.

c. are totipotent.

d. have reverse transcriptase.

e. None of the above

Textbook Reference: 16.3 How Are New Genes Inserted into Cells? p. 359


33. Which of the following characteristics would not be useful for a vector?

a. A recognition sequence for a restriction enzyme

b. Large size relative to the host chromosomes

c. The ability to replicate independently inside the host cell

d. A reporter gene

e. An origin of replication

Textbook Reference: 16.3 How Are New Genes Inserted into Cells? p. 360


34. Which would be an appropriate vector if one wanted to insert 100,000 base pairs of DNA into a host cell?

a. Plasmid

b. Virus

c. Yeast artificial chromosome

d. All of the above

e. None of the above

Textbook Reference: 16.3 How Are New Genes Inserted into Cells? p. 360


35. An important vector for manipulation of plant genes comes from the bacterium A. tumefaciens and is called a(n)

a. EcoRI plasmid.

b. raze bacteriophage.

c. pangene-site vector.

d. Ti plasmid.

e. None of the above

Textbook Reference: 16.3 How Are New Genes Inserted into Cells? p. 360


36. Which of the following makes plasmids useful as a vector?

a. Unlike viruses, plasmids do not need to be coaxed to infect cells by artificial means.

b. Many plasmids contain genes that convey antibiotic resistance.

c. Plasmids can accommodate a large amount of DNA.

d. Plasmids use the same origin of replication as eukaryotic cells.

e. All of the above

Textbook Reference: 16.3 How Are New Genes Inserted into Cells? p. 360


37. The disease called crown gall is caused by the

a. insertion of a transposable element carried on the Ti plasmid.

b. transcription of the Ti plasmid in the plant cells.

c. transfer of bacterial genomes into the plant cell genome.

d. rampant multiplication of A. tumefaciens bacteria within the plant.

e. None of the above

Textbook Reference: 16.3 How Are New Genes Inserted into Cells? pp. 360–361


38.–39. A plasmid has genes that confer resistance to both ampicillin and tetracycline. Foreign DNA is inserted at a recognition site that lies within the ampicillin gene.


38. The resulting recombinant plasmid should be _______ to ampicillin and _______ to tetracycline.

a. resistant; resistant

b. resistant; sensitive

c. resistant; complementary

d. sensitive; resistant

e. sensitive; resistant

Textbook Reference: 16.3 How Are New Genes Inserted into Cells? p. 361


39. After host cells have been given the opportunity to take up the vector, which of the following should be the most rare host?

a. Bacteria with no plasmid and with no foreign DNA

b. Bacteria with the foreign DNA

c. Bacteria with the recombinant plasmid

d. Bacteria with the nonrecombinant plasmid

e. All types should appear with approximately the same frequency.

Textbook Reference: 16.3 How Are New Genes Inserted into Cells? p. 361


40. A researcher inserts a DNA segment at the BamHI recognition site within a plasmid; this site is located within the tetracycline resistance gene. This plasmid also has a gene for ampicillin resistance. Following DNA transformation, the researcher must differentiate the bacteria that have taken up the recombinant DNA from those that have taken up either the foreign DNA only or intact plasmids. In doing so, the researcher should select the bacteria that

a. will grow on ampicillin but are sensitive to tetracycline.

b. are sensitive to both antibiotics.

c. are resistant to both antibiotics.

d. will grow on tetracycline but are sensitive to ampicillin.

e. grow only on an enriched medium.

Textbook Reference: 16.3 How Are New Genes Inserted into Cells? p. 361


41. The DNA from the genome of an organism is chopped into numerous fragments, which are then inserted into vectors that are taken up by host cells. The genetic information that is present in the resulting colonies is called a gene

a. collection.

b. library.

c. museum.

d. bank.

e. farm.

Textbook Reference: 16.4 What Are the Sources of DNA Used in Cloning? p. 362


42. Which of the following necessarily makes use of reverse transcriptase?

a. Southern blotting

b. Construction of a gene library

c. Construction of a cDNA library

d. Gene knockout studies

e. Pharming

Textbook Reference: 16.4 What Are the Sources of DNA Used in Cloning? p. 363


43. What does the “c” in “cDNA library” stand for?

a. Cytoplasmic

b. Cellular

c. Compatible

d. Chip

e. Complementary

Textbook Reference: 16.4 What Are the Sources of DNA Used in Cloning? p. 363


44. Which of the following statements is true?

a. A gene library constructed from human brain tissue will likely be different from a gene library constructed from human pancreatic tissue.

b. A cDNA library constructed from human brain tissue will likely be different from a cDNA library constructed from human pancreatic tissue.

c. A cDNA library would be very useful in examining DNA that does not code for mRNA.

d. Messenger RNAs have a long life span in the cytoplasm.

e. cDNA libraries are very useful in determining cause-and-effect relationships between nucleotides and specific traits.

Textbook Reference: 16.4 What Are the Sources of DNA Used in Cloning? p. 363


45. Geneticists have found _______ studies to be useful in revealing cause-and-effect relationships between a trait and specific nucleotides of a gene.

a. homologous recombination

b. cDNA library

c. pharming

d. antisense RNA

e. mutagenesis

Textbook Reference: 16.4 What Are the Sources of DNA Used in Cloning? p. 363


46. Homologous recombination can be used to

a. separate DNA fragments by size.

b. inactivate specific genes.

c. examine patterns of expression of genes in different tissues.

d. identify specific individuals.

e. produce sticky ends.

Textbook Reference: 16.5 What Other Tools Are Used to Manipulate DNA? p. 364


47. Which of the following can be used to inhibit translation of a specific gene?

a. Antisense RNA

b. Interference RNA

c. DNA chips

d. Both a and b

e. Both b and c

Textbook Reference: 16.5 What Other Tools Are Used to Manipulate DNA? p. 364


48. The use of which of the following would be most appropriate for inhibiting transcription of a specific gene?

a. Antisense RNA

b. Interference RNA

c. DNA chips

d. Homologous recombination

e. PCR

Textbook Reference: 16.5 What Other Tools Are Used to Manipulate DNA? p. 365


49. The use of small interfering RNA as a means for blocking RNA translation is preferred over the use of antisense RNA because

a. siRNA can be used with DNA chips.

b. only siRNA can be used to test cause-and-effect relationships.

c. siRNA is more stable than antisense RNA.

d. siRNA is single-stranded and thus easier to produce.

e. None of the above

Textbook Reference: 16.5 What Other Tools Are Used to Manipulate DNA? p. 365


50. The use of which of the following allows researchers to examine the patterns of gene expression for a large number of genes simultaneously?

a. Antisense RNA

b. Interference RNA

c. DNA chip technology

d. PCR

e. Homologous recombination

Textbook Reference: 16.5 What Other Tools Are Used to Manipulate DNA? p. 365


51. Which of the following processes makes use of reverse transcriptase?

a. Homologous recombination

b. RT-PCR

c. Interference RNA

d. Mutagenesis

e. None of the above

Textbook Reference: 16.5 What Other Tools Are Used to Manipulate DNA? p. 366


52. Laura van ’T Veer and her colleagues discovered specific differences between cancer patients with good prognoses and those with poor prognoses. The diagnostic tool they used involved

a. DNA fingerprinting.

b. pharming.

c. interference RNA.

d. DNA chip technology.

e. mutagenesis.

Textbook Reference: 16.5 What Other Tools Are Used to Manipulate DNA? p. 366


53. Humans have been using biotechnology for _______ years.

a. less than 50

b. about 100

c. about 200

d. about 1,000

e. at least 8,000

Textbook Reference: 16.6 What Is Biotechnology? p. 367


54. Who discovered that a mold makes the antibiotic penicillin?

a. Laura van ’T Veer

b. Alexander Fleming

c. Louis Pasteur

d. Francis Crick

e. Leroy Hood

Textbook Reference: 16.6 What Is Biotechnology? p. 367


55. An additional property that only an expression vector has is

a. its small size relative to host-cell chromosomes.

b. a recognition sequence for a restriction enzyme.

c. transcription binding sites.

d. a reporter gene.

e. the ability to replicate independently, within the host.

Textbook Reference: 16.6 What Is Biotechnology? p. 367


56. Expression vectors often have _______ promoters that respond to specific signals.

a. signal

b. recognition

c. complementary

d. inducible

e. None of the above

Textbook Reference: 16.6 What Is Biotechnology? p. 367


57. An enhancer would be used for which of the following purposes?

a. Constructing a gene library

b. Constructing an expression vector

c. Doing a restriction digestion

d. Attempting to “silence” a gene

e. Constructing a recombinant plasmid

Textbook Reference: 16.6 What Is Biotechnology? p. 367


58. In the construction of an expression vector, a signal sequence

a. allows for the expression of a gene in a particular tissue only.

b. allows the expression of a gene to be turned on or off.

c. allows the gene product to be directed to an appropriate location.

d. makes a gene responsive to hormonal stimulation.

e. None of the above

Textbook Reference: 16.6 What Is Biotechnology? p. 367


59. The enzyme TPA has a clinical use in

a. stopping cancer cells from dividing.

b. dissolving blood clots.

c. producing insulin.

d. producing antibodies.

e. treating anemia by producing hemoglobin.

Textbook Reference: 16.6 What Is Biotechnology? p. 368


60. Pharming is

a. the use of expression vectors to modulate the expression of a gene in a specific tissue.

b. the use of reporter genes.

c. a critical step in the generation of YACs.

d. a type of mutagenesis.

e. None of the above

Textbook Reference: 16.6 What Is Biotechnology? p. 368


61. The major limitation of the dried preparation of the insecticide produced by Bacillus thuringiensis is that it

a. has not been approved for use in the United States.

b. degrades so easily that it has to be applied repeatedly.

c. is not very toxic.

d. is new and untested.

e. None of the above

Textbook Reference: 16.6 What Is Biotechnology? p. 368


62. Salt-tolerant tomato plants are an example of

a. a transgenic crop that is adapted to its environment.

b. tailoring the environment to the needs of crop plants.

c. a chloroplast enzyme system that has been inhibited.

d. plants that are able to make -carotene.

e. a medically useful product of biotechnology.

Textbook Reference: 16.6 What Is Biotechnology? p. 370

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