Vapour compression refrigeration system Introduction




Download 63.86 Kb.
TitleVapour compression refrigeration system Introduction
Date conversion27.11.2012
Size63.86 Kb.
TypeDocuments
Sourcehttp://elearning.vtu.ac.in/Programme10/P10 Notes/Applied Thermodynamics/M.K.Muralidhara/Updated
Vapour compression refrigeration system


Introduction

In vapour compression system, the refrigerants used are ammonia, carbon dioxide, freons etc. the refrigerants alternately undergoes condensation and evaporation during the cycle.

When refrigerant enters the evaporator it will be in liquid state and by absorbing latent heat it become vapours. Thus the C.O.P of this system is always much higher that air refrigeration systems.


Schematic Diagram






Analysis of the cycle

The various processes are

Process ab . The vapour refrigerant entering the compressor is compressed to high pressure and temperature in a isentropic manner.

Process bc. This high pressure and high temperature vapour then enters a condenser where the temperature of the vapour first drops to saturation temperature and subsequently the vapour refrigerants condenses to liquid state.

  • Process cd. This liquid refrigerant is collected in the liquid storage tank and later on it is expanded to low pressure and temperature by passing it through the throttle valve. At point d we have low temperature liquid refrigerant wuitn small amount of vapour.

  • Process da. This low temperature liquid then enters the evaporator where it absorbs heat from the space to be cooled namely the refrigerator and become vapour.




  • Effect of under cooling the liquid





Effect of super heating the vapour




Advantages of Vapour compression refrigeration system over air refrigeration system

  • Since the working cycle approaches closer to carnot cycle, the C.O.P is quite high.

  • Operational cost of vapour compression system is just above 1/4th of air refrigeration system.

  • Since the heat removed consists of the latent heat of vapour, the amount of liquid circulated is less and as a result the size of the evaporator is smaller.

  • Any desired temperature of the evaporator can be achieved just by adjusting the throttle valve.

Disadvantages of Vapour compression refrigeration system over air refrigeration system

  • Initial investment is high

  • Prevention of leakage of refrigerant is a major problem

Refrigerant

A refrigerant is a fluid in a refrigerating system that by its evaporating takes the heat of the cooling coils and gives up heat by condensing the condenser.


^ Identifying refrigerants by numbers


The present practice in the refrigeration industry is to identify refrigerants by numbers. The identification system of numbering has been standardized by the American society of heating, refrigerating and air conditioning engineers (ASHRAE), some refrigerants in common use are



Refrigeration

R-11

R-12

R-22

R-717

R114(R40)

R-500

R502


R-764


Name and Chemical Formula

Trichloromonofluoromethane CCl3F

Dichlorodifluoromethane CCl2F2

Monochlorodifluoromethane CHClF2

Ammonia NH3

Azeotropic mixture of 73.8%

(R-22) and 26.2% R-152a

Azeotropic mixture of 48.8%

(R-22) and 51.2% R-115

Sulphur Dioxide SO2










Properties of Refrigerants

  • Toxicity:

It obviously desirable that the refrigerant have little effect on people

  • Inflammability:

Although refrigerants are entirely sealed from the atmosphere, leaks are bound to develop. If the refrigerant is inflammable and the system is located where ignition of the refrigerant may occur, a great hazard is involved.


  • Boiling Point.

An ideal refrigerant must have low boiling temperature at atmospheric pressure

  • Freezing Point

An ideal refrigerant must have a very low freezing point because the refrigerant should not freeze at low evaporator temperatures.

  • Evaporator and condenser pressure.

In order to avoid the leakage of the atmosphere air and also to enable the detection of the leakage of the refrigerant, both the Evaporator and condenser pressure should be slightly above the atmosphere pressure.

  • Chemical Stability

An ideal refrigerant must not decompose under operating conditions..


  • Latent heat of Evaporation.

The Latent heat of Evaporation must be very high so that a minimum amount of refrigerant will accomplish the desired result; in other words, it increases the refrigeration effect

  • Specific Volume

The Specific Volume of the refrigerant must be low. The lower specific volume of the refrigerant at the compressor reduces the size of the compressor.



  • Specific heat of liquid vapour.

A good refrigerant must have low specific heat when it is in liquid state and high specific heat when it is vaporized

  • Viscosity

The viscosity of the refrigerant t both the liquid and vapour state must be very low as improved the heat transfer and reduces the pumping pressure..



  • Corrosiveness.

A good refrigerant should be non-corrosive to prevent the corrosion of the metallic parts of the refrigerator.

  • Coefficient of performance

The coefficient of performance of a refrigerant must be high so that the energy spent in refrigeration will be less.



  • Odour.

A good refrigerant must be odourless, otherwise some foodstuff such as meat, butter, etc. loses their taste

  • Lekage

A good refrigerant must be such that any leakage can be detected by simple test.


  • Oil solvent properties.

A good refrigerant must be not react with the lubricating oil used in the refrigerator for lubricating the parts of the compressor.

  • Cost

The cost of the refrigerant is the major important, it will easily available and low cost.


Problem1: 20 tons of ice is produced from water at 20ºC to ice at -6ºC in a day of 24 hours, when the temperature range in the compressor is from -15ºC to 25ºC. The condition of the vapour is dry at the end of compression. Assuming relative C.O.P as 80%, calculate the power required to drive the compressor.

Take Cpice=2.1kJ/kg, Latent heat of ice=335k/kg


Temp

ºC

Liquid

Vapour

Enthalpy hf

Entropy Sf

Enthalpy hg

Entropy Sg

25

100.04

0.347

1319.2

4.4852

-15

-54.55

-2.1338

1304.99

5.0585


















Problem2: A vapour compression refrigerator working with Freon-12 has its temperature range -10ºC and 30ºC. The Vapour enters the compressor dry and under cooled by 5ºC in the condenser. For a capacity of 15 TOR, find: (a)C.O.P (b) mass of freon (c) Power required.

Cp for vapour = 0.56kJ/kgK

Cp for liquid = 1.003kJ/kgK

Solution:
Refrigeration capacity=15 TOR
From tables the properties of Freon 12 are


Temp

ºC

Enthalpy

Entropy

hf

Hfg

hg

Sf

Sg

30

64.59

135.03

199.62

0.24

0.6853

-10

26.87

156.31

183.19

0.108

0.7019
















Problem3: A food storage locker requires a refrigeration system of 12 tons capacity at an evaporator temperature of -8ºC and a condenser temperature of 30ºC. The refrigerant freon-12 is sub cooled to 25ºC before entering the expansion valve and the vapour is superheated to -2ºC before entering the compressor. The compression of the refrigerant is reversible adiabatic. A double action compressor with stroke equal to 1.5 times the bore is to be used operating at 900 rpm.

Determine

  • COP

  • Theoretical piston displacement/min

  • Mass of refrigerant to be circulated/min

  • Theoretical bore and stroke of the compressor.

Take liquid specific heat of refrigerant as 1.23 kJ/kg K and the specific heat of vapour refrigerant is 0.732 kJ/kg K.


Solution:
From tables the properties of Freon 12 are



Temp ºC

Enthalpy

Entropy

hf

hg

Sf

Sg

30

64.59

199.62

0.24

0.6853

-8

25.75

184.2

0.1142

0.7002





























Problem4:

A vapour compression refrigeration system of 5kW cooling capacity operates between -10ºC and 30ºC. The enthalpy of refrigerant vapour after compression is 370kJ/kg. Find the COP, refrigerating effect, mass flow rate of the refrigerant and the compressor power. The extract of the refrigerant property table is given below

Temp

Pressure

Vf

Vg

hf

hg

Sf

Sg

°C

bar




m3/kg

 

kJ/kg

 

kJ/kgK

-10

226

0.7x10-3

0.08

190

345

0.95

1.5

30

7.5

0.77x10-3

0.02

220

220

1.10

1.45



Solution:
Assume the condition before compression as dry saturated vapour










Problem5: A vapour compression refrigerator uses methyl chloride and works in the pressure rang of 1.19 bar and 5.67 bar. At the beginning of compression, the refrigerant is 0.96 dry and at the end of isentropic compression, its temperature is 55ºC. The refrigerant liquid leaving the condenser is saturated. If the mass flow of refrigerant is 1.8kg/min,

Determine

COP

The rise in temperature of cooling water if the water flow rate is16 kg/min. the properties of methyl chloride is given below



Temp

ºC

Pressure

bar

Enthalpy

Entropy

hf

Hfg

hg

Sf

Sg

30

1.19

64.59

135.03

199.62

0.24

0.6853

-10

5.67

26.87

156.31

183.19

0.108

0.7019

















Vapour absorption refrigeration system


General

The absorption refrigeration system is a heat-operated unit which used a refrigerant that is alternately absorbed and liberated by the absorbent.

Simple Absorption system

The minimum number of primary units essential in an absorption system include an evaporation, absorber, generator and condenser.





An expansion valve, pressure reducing valve, and a pump are used in a conventional two-fluid cycle, but the pump can be eliminated by adding a gaseous third fluid. A simple absorption cycle is shown in figure

This cycle differes from a vapour compression cycle by the substitution of an absorber, generator, pumps and reducing valve for the compressor. Various combinatios of fluids may be used, but that of ammonia, a strong solution that contains about as much ammonia as possible; a weak solution contains considerably less ammonia.

The weak solution containing very little ammonia is sprayed or otherwise exposed in the absorber and absorbs ammonia coming from the evaporation. Absorption of the ammonia lowers the pressure in the absorber, which in turn draws more ammonia vapour from the evaporator. Usually some forms of cooling is employed in the absorber to remove the heat of condensation and the heat of solution evolve there.

The strong solution is then pumped into a generator, which is at higher pressure and is where heat is applied the heat vapourises the ammonia driving it out of solution and into the condenser, where it is liquefied. The liquid ammonia passes on to the receiver if a separate one is used, or through the expansion valve and into the evaporator. The weak solution left in the generator after the ammonia has been drive off flows through the reducing valve back to the absorber

Add document to your blog or website

Similar:

Vapour compression refrigeration system Introduction icon4. hvac and refrigeration system syllabus hvac and Refrigeration System

Vapour compression refrigeration system Introduction iconGps water Vapour – Operational Implementation and Recent Developments

Vapour compression refrigeration system Introduction iconA short Introduction of the American Education System Introduction

Vapour compression refrigeration system Introduction iconPreformulation Studies Compression Properties

Vapour compression refrigeration system Introduction iconA comparison of Lossy Audio Compression Formats and Techniques

Vapour compression refrigeration system Introduction iconCpc refrigeration oil

Vapour compression refrigeration system Introduction iconIan Miller saab variable Compression Motor Abstract

Vapour compression refrigeration system Introduction iconInertial Confinement Fusion target Irradiation at z pinches with axial compression

Vapour compression refrigeration system Introduction iconRefrigeration Compressor Oils

Vapour compression refrigeration system Introduction iconPreserving Meat without Refrigeration

Place this button on your site:
Documents


The database is protected by copyright ©predoc.org 2014
send message
Documents
Main page