1. The three steps in memory information processing are: a




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AP Psychology Ch. 09 Memory Study Guide

Name: ______________________________ Period: _______




1.

The three steps in memory information processing are:

A)

input, processing, output.

B)

input, storage, output.

C)

input, storage, retrieval.

D)

encoding, storage, retrieval.

E)

encoding, retrieval, storage.




2.

The process of getting information out of memory storage is called:

A)

encoding.

B)

retrieval.

C)

rehearsal.

D)

storage.




3.

Which of the following is the best example of a flashbulb memory?

A)

suddenly remembering to buy bread while standing in the checkout line at the grocery store

B)

recalling the name of someone from high school while looking at his or her yearbook snapshot

C)

remembering to make an important phone call

D)

remembering what you were doing on September 11, 2001, when terrorists crashed planes into the World Trade Center towers




4.

The three-stage processing model of memory was proposed by:

A)

Atkinson and Shifrin.

B)

Herman Ebbinghaus.

C)

Loftus and Palmer.

D)

George Sperling.




5.

The concept of working memory is analogous to a computer's:

A)

read-only memory (ROM).

B)

random-access memory (RAM).

C)

mouse.

D)

keyboard.




6.

The first thing Karen did when she discovered that she had misplaced her keys was to re-create in her mind the day's events. That she had little difficulty in doing so illustrates:

A)

automatic processing.

B)

effortful processing.

C)

state-dependent memory.

D)

priming.




7.

Information is maintained in short-term memory only briefly unless it is:

A)

encoded.

B)

rehearsed.

C)

iconic or echoic.

D)

retrieved.




8.

Although you can't recall the answer to a question on your psychology midterm, you have a clear mental image of the textbook page on which it appears. Evidently, your ________ encoding of the answer was ________.

A)

semantic; automatic

B)

visual; automatic

C)

semantic; effortful

D)

visual; effortful




9.

The spacing effect means that:

A)

distributed study yields better retention than cramming.

B)

retention is improved when encoding and retrieval are separated by no more than one hour.

C)

learning causes a reduction in the size of the synaptic gap between certain neurons.

D)

delaying retrieval until memory has consolidated improves recall.




10.

According to the serial position effect, when recalling a list of words you should have the greatest difficulty with those:

A)

at the beginning of the list.

B)

at the end of the list.

C)

at the end and in the middle of the list.

D)

at the beginning and end of the list.

E)

in the middle of the list.




11.

Experimenters gave people a list of words to be recalled. When the participants were tested after a delay, the items that were best recalled were those:

A)

at the beginning of the list.

B)

in the middle of the list.

C)

at the end of the list.

D)

at the beginning and the end of the list.




12.

Darren was asked to memorize a list of letters that included v, q, y, and j. He later recalled these letters as e, u, i, and k, suggesting that the original letters had been encoded:

A)

automatically.

B)

visually.

C)

semantically.

D)

acoustically.




13.

Craik and Tulving had research participants process words visually, acoustically, or semantically. In a subsequent recall test, which type of processing resulted in the greatest retention?

A)

visual

B)

acoustic

C)

semantic

D)

acoustic and semantic processing were equally beneficial




14.

Memory techniques such as the method of loci, acronyms, and the peg-word system are called:

A)

consolidation devices.

B)

imagery techniques.

C)

encoding strategies.

D)

mnemonic devices.




15.

To help him remember the order of ingredients in difficult recipes, master chef Giulio often associates them with the route he walks to work each day. Giulio is using which mnemonic technique?

A)

peg-word system

B)

acronyms

C)

the method of loci

D)

chunking




16.

One way to increase the amount of information in memory is to group it into larger, familiar units. This process is referred to as:

A)

consolidating.

B)

organization.

C)

memory construction.

D)

encoding.

E)

chunking.




17.

Textbook chapters are often organized into ________ in order to facilitate information processing.

A)

mnemonic devices

B)

chunks

C)

hierarchies

D)

recognizable units




18.

When Gordon Bower presented words grouped by category or in random order, recall was:

A)

the same for all words.

B)

better for the categorized words.

C)

better for the random words.

D)

improved when participants developed their own mnemonic devices.




19.

Visual sensory memory is referred to as:

A)

iconic memory.

B)

echoic memory.

C)

photomemory.

D)

semantic memory.
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